***Page in Progress***

MENTAL DISORDERS

Based on information obtained from the DSM-5: American Psychiatric Association, 2013. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition.

 

CATEGORIES

Personality Disorders

Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

Schizophrenia

Sleep-Wake Disorders

Specific Learning Disorder

Social Communication Disorder

Somatic Symptom Disorder

Substance Related and Addictive Disorders

ANXIETY DISORDERS >>
 

Anxiety disorders include disorders that share features of excessive fear and anxiety and related behavioural disturbances.

Experiencing occasional anxiety is a normal part of life. However, people with anxiety disorders frequently have intense, excessive and persistent worry and fear about everyday situations. Often, anxiety disorders involve repeated episodes of sudden feelings of intense anxiety and fear or terror that reach a peak within minutes (panic attacks).

These feelings of anxiety and panic interfere with daily activities, are difficult to control, are out of proportion to the actual danger and can last a long time. You may avoid places or situations to prevent these feelings. Symptoms may start during childhood or the teen years and continue into adulthood.

Click on the file icon to download fact sheet

Examples of Anxiety Disorders:

AGORAPHOBIA

GENERALIZED ANXIETY DISORDER

PANIC ATTACKS

PANIC DISORDERS

SEPARATION ANXIETY DISORDER

SOCIAL ANXIETY DISORDER (SOCIAL PHOBIA)

SPECIFIC PHOBIA

SUBSTANCE/MEDICATION INDUCED ANXIETY DISORDER

ATTENTION-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (adhd) >>
 

Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a disorder with its onset in early childhood, and is characterized by symptoms of hyperactivity, inattention, and impulsivity that interfere with daily and occupational functioning. DSM-5 has updated its criteria for ADHD to encompass the full life span experience of an individual with the disorder. Early diagnosis of ADHD, when early interventions can have the greatest effect, is being given greater attention in the psychological literature. Nonetheless, some individuals may not receive a proper diagnosis until adulthood. The new DSM-5 criteria seeks to improve the accuracy of the diagnosis of ADHD across all age groups. Accordingly, DSM-5 has reclassified ADHD from “Disorders Usually First Diagnosed in Infancy, Childhood or Adolescence” to “Neurodevelopmental Disorders.” The worldwide estimate of ADHD prevalence in children is 5% (Cortese et al., 2012). About half of those with childhood ADHD will still have symptoms in adulthood.

ADHD Info Sheet

 
AUTISM SPECTRUM DISORDER >>

Autism Spectrum Disorder is a developmental disorder in which the person affected exhibits impaired development in communication, interaction with others, and in behavior (Dryden-Edwards, 2014). People suffering from this class of disorders may show a wide range of symptoms, deficits in skills, and levels of impairment (National Institute of Mental Health, n.d.). Autism Spectrum Disorder is currently being diagnosed more frequently than ever. Some researchers suggest as many as 1 in 68 children in the United States may qualify for this diagnosis (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2010). Four to five times more boys than girls qualify for the diagnosis. There is disagreement among professionals as to whether this indicates more children actually having the diagnosis, whether the change in diagnostic guidelines has made a difference in reporting, or whether parents and professionals are more aware of the disorder.

ASD Info Sheet

 
BIPOLAR DISORDER >>

Bipolar disorder is a severe mental illness that produces intense emotions and responses at any given time. Although they usually occur spontaneously, the conditional moods can go from being happy to extremely sad and confused. These types of shifts are damaging toward individuals and the people who surround them. The disorder consists of manic episodes that may fluctuate for at least a week while also impairing the person's ability to make rational decisions. If you are the partner there is no doubt that you are facing some of the same challenges family members are. Although you have loyalty toward this person you're also affected by fear and frustration. If you aren't sure how to handle this issue and determine how it's going to affect your happiness in the future, know that there is hope and ways to get through these difficult times.

Bipolar I Info Sheet

Bipolar II Info Sheet

 
CONDUCT DISORDER >>

CD (Conduct Disorder) is a DSM-5 (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fifth edition), diagnosis typically assigned to individuals under age 18, who habitually violate the rights of others, and will not conform their behavior to the law or social norms appropriate for their age. Conduct Disorder may also be described as juvenile delinquency; behavior patterns which will bring a young person into contact with the juvenile justice system, or other disciplinary action from parents or administrative discipline from schools. It is well established that Conduct Disorder can be a premorbid condition for APD (Antisocial Personality Disorder) or habitual adult criminality, especially when CU (Callous-Unemotional) traits are present. There is well established co-morbidity and premorbidity with ADD/ADHD (Attention Deficit Disorder/Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder) and ODD (Oppositional Defiant Disorder) (Pardini & Fite, 2010). The direction of causality may be bi-directional, as ADD/ADHD children are at risk for maltreatment from peers and parents, and maltreatment is established as a risk factor for both Conduct Disorder and adult criminality (De Sanctis, Nomura, Newcorn, & Halperinb, 2012). It has been found that the rate of Conduct Disorder resulting in adult criminality is as high as 50% (Bonin, Stevens, Beecham, Byford, & Parsonage, 2011).

CONDUCT DISORDER Info Sheet

 
DISRUPTIVE MOOD DYSREGULATION DISORDER >>

New to the DSM-5, disruptive mood dysregulation disorder is a childhood disorder characterized by a pervasively irritable or angry mood. Symptoms include frequent angry or aggressive outbursts combined with an angry or irritable mood on days when outbursts do not occur. Although prevalence is low among the general population, disruptive mood disorder is common among children already being treated for psychiatric illness. Symptoms of disruptive mood dysregulation disorder are common to other disorders such a bipolar disorder, oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder. The disorder often co-occurs with depression, anxiety or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Although medication is available to treat symptoms of disruptive mood dysregulation disorder, family focused therapy typically has the best outcome.

DISRUPTIVE MOOD DYSREGULATION DISORDER Info Sheet

 
EATING DISORDERS >>

Do you feel that your eating habits and obsessive thoughts have been causing you to feel ashamed, hopeless and frustrated about your body? A food disorder can build a perception that begins to take control of you, causing you to spend most hours worrying about food, what you shouldn't be eating and how you'll look if you have eaten. Going through this alone can be difficult if you aren't sure how to express this innate fear or stress. By confiding in a therapist you can learn how to break this pattern for the purpose of finding happiness and a healthy sense of control.

Eating disorders are abnormal eating habits most threatening toward your health and relationships. There are different forms of eating issues such as Anorexia Nervosa, Bulimia Nervosa and Binge Eating. This behavior shows symptoms of starvation and out of control eating patterns that tend to take over your decision making. Although a lot of people worry about their weight, those with eating disorders will take the thoughts and behaviors to an extreme. The events that contribute to the issues vary, although it often has to do with a sense of self control and emotions. If you feel that you're obsessing over your body type or food consumption and the activity is causing an imbalance within your life, you can reach out and get help from a counselor who will guide you and help you rid of these unhealthy thoughts by clarifying what you are trying to accomplish.

Examples of Eating Disorders:

ANOREXIA NERVOSA info sheet

BINGE-EATING DISORDER info sheet

BULIMIA NERVOSA info sheet

 
GENDER DYSPHORIA >>

Gender Dysphoria, while being a new addition to DSM-5, is the new term for Gender Identity Disorder. In order to prevent stigma guarantee clinical care for people who perceive and believe they are a different sex than their designated gender, the new term was introduced (American Psychiatric Publishing, 2013). The DSM-5 diagnostic measures for gender dysphoria include tough and unrelenting cross-gender classification that go further than a need for an alleged cultural benefit.

Adults and teenagers may have a fixation with doing away of primary and secondary gender features, and have the thought that they are not being characterized by the right sex. One should realize that individuals, who have gender dysphoria, do not have a coexisting physical intersex situation. Noted pain or difficulty is seen in the work place, dealing with others, as well as in other vital areas of life. This is the defining factor of gender dysphoria (American Psychiatric Publishing, 2013). It is significant to state that gender dysphoria is frequently seen in children, though many children do not end up being adults with gender dysphoria (Canadian Psychological Association, 2013).

GENDER DYSPHORIA info sheet

 
INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY >>

Previously called Mental Retardation, Intellectual Disability refers to a disorder that starts during the developmental period (American Psychiatric Association, 2013). It consists of certain intellectual deficits and challenges handling aspects of daily life like school, work, home, social life, health, among other things. Intellectual disability (ID) is an explanatory phrase for sub standard intelligence that occurs below age eighteen, which is the developmental period.

According to DSM-5, there are three criteria that must be fulfilled in order for the diagnosis of intellectual disability (American Psychiatric Association, 2013).

(A) Deficits in intellectual functions, such as reasoning, problem-solving, planning, abstract thinking, judgment, academic learning, and learning from experience, confirmed by both clinical assessment and individualized, standardized intelligence testing.

(B) Deficits in adaptive functioning that result in failure to meet developmental and sociocultural standards for personal independence and social responsibility. Without ongoing support, the adaptive deficits limit functioning in one or more activities of daily life, such as communication, social participation, and independent living, across multiple environments, such as home, school, work, and community.

(C) Onset of intellectual and adaptive deficits during the developmental period.

INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY info sheet

 
INTERNET GAMING DISORDER >>

Internet Gaming Disorder, or IGD, is the excessive use of computers or other devices that provide the user access to the Internet, for example tablets, and smartphones, for online activities to the extent that they profoundly compromise daily life activities and responsibilities. In 2013, the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-5 (DSM-5) included IGD in Section III—Conditions Warranting More Experience and Research before it might gain recognition officially (APA, 2013). Young and Nabuco de Abreu (2011) prefer the term Internet Use Disorder, or IUD, because it more closely encompasses the countless Internet activities available rather than simply gaming. Due to the expansive online venues available using the Internet, some experts argue to change the name of the disorder, for example, "Excessive Web Use" or another name that is more inclusive of the myriad ways possible to use the Internet excessively (Wolchover, 2012). Time will tell if the disorder is ever recognized officially, and by what name, although “Internet Use Disorder” covers a much broader spectrum than gaming.

INTERNET GAMING DISORDER info sheet

 
MAJOR DEPRESSIVE DISORDER >>

Major Depressive Disorder is a DSM-5 (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th Ed.) diagnosis assigned to individuals who feel down and/or have lost interest in activities they previously enjoyed. This depressed feeling must occur daily for at least 2 weeks for a diagnosis to be given. Children and adolescence may be more irritable than sad. In addition to a low or irritable mood a person may experience low energy, lack motivation, weight changes, sleep changes, negative thoughts, lack of focus and avoid activities.

MAJOR DEPRESSIVE DISORDER info sheet

 
MAJOR NEUROCOGNITIVE DISORDER >>

Major neurocognitive disorder is a sub-diagnosis used to indicate the severity of other mental disorders, including those due to cognitive disorders, the multiple forms of dementia, and traumatic brain injuries. While symptoms may be similar, both minor and major neurocognitive disorders are distinct from pervasive developmental disorders and intellectual disabilities (The American Psychiatic Association, 2013).

MAJOR NEUROCOGNITIVE DISORDER info sheet

 
OBSESSIVE-COMPULSIVE DISORDERS >>

Major neurocognitive disorder is a sub-diagnosis used to indicate the severity of other mental disorders, including those due to cognitive disorders, the multiple forms of dementia, and traumatic brain injuries. While symptoms may be similar, both minor and major neurocognitive disorders are distinct from pervasive developmental disorders and intellectual disabilities (The American Psychiatic Association, 2013).

OBSESSIVE COMPULSIVE DISORDER info sheet

 
PARAPHILIC DISORDERS >>

The word paraphilia derives from Greek; para means around or beside, and philia means love. The definition of paraphilia is any emotional disorder characterized by sexually arousing fantasies, urges, or behaviors that are recurrent, intense, occur over a period of at least 6 months, and cause significant distress or interfere with the sufferer’s work, social function, or other important areas of functioning. This is as opposed to sexual variants, which are sexual behaviors that are not typical but are not a part of any illness.

VOYEURISM info sheet

EXHIBITIONISM info sheet

FROTTEURISM info sheet

SEXUAL MASOCHISM info sheet

SEXUAL SADISM info sheet

PEDOPHILIA info sheet

FETISHISM info sheet

TRANSVESTISM info sheet

PERSONALITY DISORDERS >>

Personality disorders in general are pervasive, enduring patterns of thinking, perceiving, reacting, and relating that cause significant distress or functional impairment. Personality disorders vary significantly in their manifestations, but all are believed to be caused by a combination of genetic and environmental factors. Many gradually become less severe with age, but certain traits may persist to some degree after the acute symptoms that prompted the diagnosis of a disorder abate. Diagnosis is clinical. Treatment is with psychosocial therapies and sometimes drug therapy.

PARANOID PERSONALITY DISORDER info sheet

SCHIZOID PERSONALITY DISORDER info sheet

SCHIZOTYPAL PERSONALITY DISORDER info sheet

ANTISOCIAL PERSONALITY DISORDER info sheet

BORDERLINE PERSONALITY DISORDER info sheet

HISTRIONIC PERSONALITY DISORDER info sheet

NARCISSISTIC PERSONALITY DISORDERinfo sheet

AVOIDANT PERSONALITY DISORDER info sheet

DEPENDENT PERSONALITY DISORDER info sheet

OBSESSIVE COMPULSIVE PERSONALITY DISORDER info sheet