DIALECTICAL behavioral therapy

What is Dialectical Behavioral Therapy, or 'DBT'?

Dialectical Behavioural Therapy is a type of Cognitive Behavioural Therapy. It's a type of talk therapy aimed to help, especially those, who struggle with experiencing intense emotions.

 

Dialectical thinking refers to the ability to logically view issues from different perspectives. It also relates to opposing forces.

 

It aims to teach you how to accept difficult emotions, learn the skills to manage them, and ultimately bring about positive change in your life.

 

This therapy framework aims to equip you with tools you can implement in your daily life to help you better cope with negative/difficult thoughts & emotions.

DBT was originally developed to help treat patients suffering from Borderline Personality Disorder. Today it's used to help treat a number of other conditions including depression, eating disorders, self-harm, anxiety, PTSD, and substance use disorders.

The 4 Models of DBT

  • Mindfulness

  • Emotional Regulation

  • Interpersonal Effectiveness

  • Distress Tolerance

What Is MINDFULNESS?

When we talk about mindfulness, many people immediately picture having to practice intrinsic yoga poses. That's not what mindfulness is.

 

Mindfulness is, quite simply put, the act of 'living in the moment'. It helps you to focus on what's happening inside you (thoughts, feelings, impulses), whilst using your senses to become aware of what's happening around you in a nonjudgmental way.

 

Mindfulness skills help you to slow down, take a step back and focus on using healthy coping skills when you are experiencing emotional pain.

Meditate

WHAT & HOW skills

Teaches you what you're focusing on ex:

  • The present

  • Your awareness in the present

  • Your emotions, thoughts, and sensations

  • Separating emotions and sensations from thought

Teaches you how to be more mindful by:

  • Balancing rational thoughts with emotions

  • Using radical acceptance to accept different aspects of yourself

  • Taking effective action

  • Practicing mindfulness skills regularly

  • Overcoming things like restlessness and doubt

WISE MIND

RATIONAL MIND

EMOTIONAL MIND

WISE

MIND

  • Intellectual

  • Use past experiences

  • Think logically

  • Use facts

  • Do research

  • Focused

  • Difficulty thinking rationally and logically

  • Make decisions based on emotions

  • Tells us how we are really doing

  • Uses core psychological needs

  • Reactive

  • Intuitive thinking

  • A balance between rational and emotional mind

  • Living mindfully

What Is PERSONAL EFFECTIVENESS?

This is the main focus of Dialectical Behavior Therapy.

The quality of our relationships with colleagues, friends, and loved ones has a significant influence on our overall well-being, self-confidence, and sense of self.

Interpersonal Effectiveness skills help us to better understand and adapt to others' communication styles and behavior patterns to build and maintain more positive relationships.

This in turn helps us to know what questions to ask, network and build rapport, manage challenging situations better, and listen and communicate more effectively.

communicating-people-chat-dialog-communication-smartphone-call-talking-speaking-group-vect

ACRONYMS

Our relationships are like a tall tree. A tree requires a system of healthy roots to nourish and support it. As the roots grow, the tree also grows taller and stronger.

 

Like trees, your relationships with others also have roots. In order to grow a relationship, the roots need to be healthy as well.

 

Interpersonal Effectiveness skills provide us with a way to nurture these roots and build or maintain healthier relationships.

 

You can easily remember these skills by their acronyms: THINK, FAST, GIVE, and DEAR MAN.

Big Tree

THINK

THINK

HAVE EMPATHY

INTERPRETATIONS

NOTICE

KINDNESS

FAST

FAIR

(no) APOLOGIES

STICK TO YOUR VALUES

TRUTHFUL

GIVE

GIVE

INTERESTED

VALIDATE

EASY MANNER

DEAR MAN

DESCRIBE

EXPRESS

ASSERT

REINFORCE

MINDFUL

APPEAR CONFIDENT

NEGOTIATE

What Is EMOTIONAL REGULATION?

Emotional regulation is a dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) skill to help us understand the function of emotions, the action urge, or reaction that accompanies each emotion, and whether to give in to or oppose these urges.

 

The following skills also help reduce vulnerability, increase resiliency against unwanted emotions, and improve overall mental health.

Emotion-Regulation_MH4A.jpg

Why do we use Emotional Regulation?

Practicing emotional regulation is very helpful in reduces vulnerability towards unwanted or overwhelming emotions. It also helps to build resiliency for when these emotions do come up. Emotional regulation skills are preventative in nature.

Understanding Emotions

Emotions help provide feedback about our immediate environment and each emotion you experience has a purpose. This is usually referred to as your 'gut instinct'. Past, present, and possible future events can also evoke certain emotions depending on your thoughts and focus. Whether you're living in the now, thinking back on certain experiences, or worrying/ being excited about possible future events.

 

Past experiences also affect how you react to certain triggers emotionally.

Emotions also help communicate how we feel to those around us. Whether it be verbal or nonverbal. (body language)

 

Where thoughts are the language of the brain, emotions are the language of the body. It is very useful to be able to identify an emotion and consider what that emotion might be trying to tell you about a situation.

 

We also have primary and secondary emotions. Ex. Getting enraged because someone cut you off in traffic = primary emotion. Feeling shame because you didn't control your emotions = secondary emotion.

Wheel of emotions - Mental Health 4 All.jpg

ABC PLEASE Skills:

The purpose of the ABC PLEASE skills is to help decrease vulnerability to unwanted/ overwhelming emotions. In the past, these were known as 'PLEASE MASTER'.

ACCUMULATING POSITIVE EXPERIENCES

BUILD MASTERY

COPE AHEAD

treat Physical iLlness

balanced Eating

avoid non-prescribed mood-Altering drugs

balanced Sleep

Exercise

What Is DISTRESS TOLERANCE?

We all experience crises in our lives. Sometimes these crises are big, like a divorce, a death, or a layoff. Sometimes these crises are small, like traffic, a long line at check out, or not knowing what to wear that day. DBT distress tolerance skills help you get to a more manageable emotional place for crisis survival.

five-senses-emotional-regulation.jpg

Skill 1

TIPP

Skill 2

ACCEPTS

Skill 3

IMPROVE

Skill 4

PROs & CONs

Skill 5

SELF SOOTHE

Skill 6

RADICAL

ACCEPTANCE

Skill 7

STOPP